Basewide Preliminary Assessments for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)

Former U.S. Navy Facilities Throughout the United States

GCE was subcontracted to conduct basewide Preliminary Assessments (PAs) for PFAS at 11 former U.S. Navy facilities which are closed under the Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC). PFAS are a class of anthropogenic compounds characterized by carbon chains of varying lengths containing carbonfluorine bonds. The pervasive use of PFAS in commercial and industrial products has led to the discovery of PFAS in soil, air, and groundwater at storage and production facilities and at private and government-owned facilities. PFAS are an environmental concern and considered an emerging contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PFAS have been used in a variety of military applications, including as a component in Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), which was routinely used at fire-fighting training areas and equipment test areas, and is still used at crash sites and some fire suppression systems in hangars. The PA is a data gathering effort to determine areas of interest (AOIs) of possible releases of PFAS into the environment. Available databases were researched, and interviews were conducted with available current and former facility personnel to determine if a site may have a release of PFAS. This information was used to develop the PA reports which identify sites which may warrant further investigation. The 11 BRAC facilities included on this contract were:

  • Former Naval Air Station (NAS) Moffett Field, CA. Former NAS Moffett Field is situated near the center of California's Silicon Valley at the southern end of San Francisco Bay and is located predominantly within an unincorporated portion of Santa Clara County, CA. It was closed under BRAC in 1994 and is now known as Moffett Federal Airfield (although recently renamed by NASA in their planning as Eastside Airfield) and is owned and operated by NASA as part of the Ames Research Center facility. The airfield is currently used as a joint civilian and military airport. A total of 136 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 8 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 128 AOIs were recommended for no further action (NFA) for PFAS.
  • Former Long Beach Naval Complex (LBNC), Long Beach, CA. Former LBNC consisted of two adjacent former naval installations, Long Beach Naval Station (LBNS) and Long Beach Naval Shipyard (LBNSY), that were located on Terminal Island at the western boundary of the City of Long Beach, CA. The LBNS was closed under BRAC in 1994 and LBNSY was later closed under BRAC in 1997. The LBNC was transferred to the City of Long Beach/Port of Long Beach (POLB) through a Local Redevelopment Authority process. POLB redeveloped the property as Pier T, which opened in 2002 as the first "mega-terminal" and continues operation as a container terminal. Former LBNC is currently designated a Regional Service Facility consisting of a primary port, hazardous cargo, port-related, maritime support, visitor-serving commercial, recreational open space, institutional, and oil and gas production facilities, as well as utilities, renewable energy resources, and environmental protection. A total of 154 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 15 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 139 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Auxiliary Landing Field (NALF), Crows Landing, CA. Former NALF Crows Landing is located in Stanislaus County, approximately 80 miles southeast of San Francisco, CA. The former installation had two decommissioned runways and several support structures. In 1994, the U.S. Navy closed the facility in accordance with the BRAC process. Most of the site and surrounding areas are currently used for agricultural purposes. Portions of the land outside the runways, roads, and former building sites have been leased to private tenants and actively farmed since the facility was decommissioned. Most of the support structures at the former installation have been demolished, with some of the existing structures remaining vacant. Portions of the remaining paved areas are used intermittently by the County of Stanislaus Sheriff's Department for training exercises. The site has also been used on an emergency basis by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection to combat nearby wildfires. A total of 98 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 8 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 90 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Air Facility (NAF) Adak, Adak Island, AK. Former NAF Adak is located on Adak Island near the center of the Aleutian Island chain approximately 1,200 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. It was closed under BRAC in 1997. Adak Island is home to the City of Adak, which is on the northern half of the island and includes a commercial airport, warehouses, maintenance shops, public works facilities, recreational center, fire station, health clinic, town hall, post office, police station, library, hotel, restaurants, maritime facilities, housing, and stores. A total of 214 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 12 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 202 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Air Station (NAS) Alameda, CA. Former NAS Alameda is located in the City of Alameda, CA, and is commonly referred to as Alameda Point. The former NAS Alameda property consisted of 2,807 acres of land, including submerged acreage. It was closed under BRAC in 1997. Current uses of former NAS Alameda include the NAS Alameda Historic District office and industries such as a distillery, brewery, auction house, nursery, and a sports and fitness club, among others. Residential areas also remain on the property. A total of 572 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 12 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 560 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Air Station (NAS) Glenview, IL. Former NAS Glenview occupies 1,121 acres in Cook County, Illinois, approximately 20 miles north of downtown Chicago and 5 miles west of Lake Michigan. It was closed under BRAC in 1995. Currently, the Village of Glenview, which includes former NAS Glenview, consists of a mixed land use consisting of residential, economic, recreational, and community services. A total of 135 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 5 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 130 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Support Activity (NSA) Mid-South, Millington, TN. Former NSA Mid-South is located in Millington, Tennessee, approximately 20 miles north of Memphis. NSA Mid-South is divided into two distinct areas: (1) the northern BRAC-transferred property, which was the subject of this PA, and (2) the southern active installation, which was excluded. This division was a result of a 1998 Base Realignment. The existing land of the former NSA Mid-South centers on the Millington-Memphis Airport and support buildings and structures for the airport. Support operations include a terminal, aircraft hangars, a flight training school, fueling facilities and fuel storage, and firefighting and rescue services. Other uses include the Millington Chamber of Commerce and the Millington Industrial Development Board operations building, a middle school, a university building, a federal prison camp, and a 53-megawatt solar farm. A total of 84 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 10 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 74 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Radio Transmitting Facility (NRTF) Driver, Suffolk, VA. Former NRTF Driver is located in Suffolk, VA, within the community of Driver, which is situated approximately 7 miles northeast of downtown Suffolk and 13 miles west of Portsmouth, VA. It was closed under BRAC in 1994. The westernmost side of the former NRTF Driver is now predominantly the Nansemond National Wildlife Refuge (NNWR). The NNWR has been managed as a closed, unstaffed satellite refuge of the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge since its 1973 establishment, and has not been, nor will be, opened to the public. The eastern portion of the former NRTF Driver is owned by the City of Suffolk and is largely unused. Commercial/industrial buildings are near the main gate. A total of 53 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. None of the AOIs were identified as warranting further investigation. Consequently, all 53 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Station Puget Sound (NSPS), Seattle, WA. Former NSPS is located in King County on the western shore of Lake Washington in the Sand Point neighborhood. Downtown Seattle is approximately 6 miles northeast of the former NSPS. It was closed under BRAC in 1995. Current land use at former NSPS consists of mixed uses and are currently owned and operated by the City of Seattle (various uses), University of Washington (education and laboratory facilities), Solid Ground Washington (Apartments and residential buildings), Friends of Youth (group home), and YouthCare (group homes) A total of 88 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 4 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 84 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Naval Station Treasure Island (NSTI), San Francisco, CA. Former NSTI is located in San Francisco Bay, midway between San Francisco and Oakland within the city and county of San Francisco. It consists of two adjacent islands: Yerba Buena Island (YBI) and the man-made Treasure Island (TI), connected by a causeway. More than 527 acres of submerged lands within San Francisco Bay surrounding the two islands are also part of the former NSTI. It was closed under BRAC in 1994. The U.S. Department of Labor operates a Job Corps Center on TI and the U.S. Coast Guard operates on YBI. The California Department of Transportation currently owns the San Francisco Bay Bridge right-of-way on YBI. Former NSTI is also home to approximately 1,800 San Francisco residents, as well as participants in supportive-housing programs for the formerly-homeless. Former NSTI also has a variety of commercial space suitable for office, media production, public storage, manufacturing, classroom and training, food service, special events, warehousing, and light industrial uses. Other current uses on former NSTI include a daycare center, a YMCA, multiple sports fields, and a sailing center, as well as several parks, hiking trails and scenic overlooks. A total of 84 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 6 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 78 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.
  • Former Mare Island Naval Shipyard (MINS), Vallejo, CA. The Mare Island peninsula is located northeast of San Francisco, CA, within the incorporated boundaries of the city of Vallejo in Solano County, CA. MINS was closed under BRAC in 1996. The U.S. Army Reserve and the U.S. Coast Guard retain portions of former MINS. Other public ownerships of properties include: The Department of Veterans Affairs, the California State Lands Commission, the state of California, and the Vallejo Unified School District. A total of 86 PFAS AOIs were evaluated for this PA. Of those, 4 AOIs were identified where further investigation may be warranted to determine the presence of PFAS and 82 AOIs were recommended for NFA for PFAS.